Socjologia pracy by Henryk Januszek(Book) 4 editions published between and in Polish and held by 7 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Adam Solak (filozofia pracy). Jerzy Stochmiałek (andragogika). Janusz Sztumski (socjologia pracy). Renata Tomaszewska-Lipiec. (pedagogika pracy, rynek. andragogika. Janusz Sztumski (Górnośląska Wyższa. Szkoła Handlowa im. Wojciecha Korfantego w Katowi cach) – socjologia pracy.
Pelco Universal Keyboard KBDA User Manual • Cm • Pelco The input devices. The CM Matrix switcher/controller is designed for medium-sized matrix switch For single operator control of individual cameras, we offer various manual. CM Mode: Program and operate the CM Matrix Switcher/Controller Unit .. Refer to the CM manual.) Connect the final wall block to COM 5, 6, 7 .
Bogusława Dobek-Ostrowska. Wydaw. Nauka o komunikowaniu: podstawowe orientacje teoretyczne QR code for Podstawy komunikowania społecznego. 6 L. Krzyżanowski: Podstawy nauk o organizacji i zarządzaniu. Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN . 24 B. Dobek-Ostrowska: Nauka o komunikowaniu. Podstawowe. Nauka o komunikowaniu: podstawowe orientacje teoretyczne. edited by Bogusława Dobek-Ostrowska. About this book. Reviews. User reviews. We haven’t.
Courses in this module are devoted to specific issues and detailed research in Media Studies and Film Studies in the context of previous courses on theory and methodology of Cultural Studies and Communication Studies. Courses in this module are aimed at systematizing and detailing students knowledge of the theoretical framework, and methodological preferences and analytic preoccupations of Media and Sobek Studies.
They are to develop individual interests and independent studies of selected areas of mediation and visual culture. How to Do Cultural and Media Studies. Bell, Allan and Peter Garrett, eds.
prof. Bogusława Dobek – Ostrowska, senior Ph.D.
Approaches to media discourse. Bordwell, David and Kristin Thompson. How to Read a Film: Pratkanis, Anthony and Elliot Aronson. The Age of Propaganda.
Nauka o komunikowaniu: podstawowe orientacje teoretyczne
Miller, Toby and Robert Stam. A Companion to Film Theory. Pramaggiore, Maria and Tom Wallis. The Art of Watching Films.
Media i komunikowanie masowe: Teorie i analizy prasy, radia, telewizji i Internetu. Komunikowanie polityczne i publiczne. Cultural theory and popular culture: Students can discriminate among various cultural forms and practices, describe them exhaustively and analyse them critically.
Skip to main menu Skip to submenu Skip to content. Course descriptions are protected by copyright. Dobem by Opole University. Opole University – Central Authentication System. You are not logged in log in. Molek-Kozakowska Film Studies 1. Multimedia presentations or ostrowskx Practice: Course objectives Courses in this module are aimed at systematizing and detailing students knowledge of the theoretical framework, and methodological preferences and analytic preoccupations of Media and Film Studies.
Media culture and journalism 2.
Podstawy komunikowania społecznego – Bogusława Dobek-Ostrowska – Google Books
Researching media production 3. Researching media reception 4. Researching media texts 5. Media discourses, multimodality, manipulation 1. Theory and categories of Film Studies 2.
Technology and economics of film production 3.
Literary and aestetic standards in film production 4. Trends in European and American film industry 5.
Film narration Reading list A. This course is not currently offered.
Buy FQPF5N60C N-Channel MOSFET Transistor, A, V, 3-Pin TOF Fairchild FQPF5N60C. Browse our latest mosfets offers. Free Next Day Delivery. FQP5N60C/FQPF5N60C. V N-Channel MOSFET. General Description. These N-Channel enhancement mode power field effect transistors are produced . Buy FQPF5N60C – ON SEMICONDUCTOR – MOSFET Transistor, N Channel, A, V, ohm, 10 V, 4 V at element order FQPF5N60C now! great.
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A Book in Every Home by Edward Leedskalnin, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. A Book in Every Home by Edward Leedskalnin () [Codebook_] – Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. A Book in Every Home: Containing Three Subjects: Ed’s Sweet Sixteen, Domestic and Political Views [Edward Leedskalnin] on *FREE* shipping.
A Book in Every Home Containing Three Subjects: Ed’s Sweet Sixteen, Domestic and Political Views
A Book in Every Home: Edward Leedskalnin was an eccentric Latvian emigrant to the United States and amateur sculptor who, it is alleged, single-handedly built the. Satanic Bible Anton Szandor Lavey. Most of the interesting hlme in abieh are in the text itself The voynich manuscript has a few styles similar to Eds Now, how can you find out if I am right?
I always have wanted a girl but I never had one. Now, I will tell you what the hlme de-gree love making is. The misleading began when our far distant ancestors began to teach their descendants. Reader, if for any reason you do not like the things I say in this little book, I left just as much space as I used, so you can write your own opinion opposite it and see if you can do better. The Surrender Experiment Michael A.
A BOOK IN EVERY HOME
Support How to Help Contact Us. They are too quick. The mouth, by hanging open, stretches the upper lip and when kept open while growing, then when fully grown. Milk and Honey Rupi Kaur. Certainly a novel perspective by one of our contemporary geniuses, ni a quick read. Its amazing what you can find from taking the visual hints Ed leaves. Self respecting producers will not stand such an injustice for long. The reason why is that I knew it would produce several conditions and leave their effects, but I did not want any effects from past experience left on me and my sweet sixteen.
The Seat of the Soul Gary Zukav. When I started out in doing things that would make it possible for me to get a girl, I set a rule in my behavior to follow: Amazon Drive Cloud storage from Amazon. Your friends may not always be your friends.
Read more Read less. Those fellows who fail to see this are not desirable to yome around. If you try to scan Hkme works with a modern scanner, soo much will be lost.
They are producing only for themselves.
Your recently viewed items and featured recommendations. Add all three to Cart Add all three to List. But all the blame does not rest on the mamma alone.
In Memory of q Red Door. But let her act very ni with the other fellow and then if someone should ask if she is sweet, I would say that she is not.
Leedskalnin’s Writings: A Book In Every Home
Any one who is too weak to make his own living is not strong enough to vote, because their weak influence weakens the state and a degenerated state cannot exist very long, but every state should be sound and lasting.
Coral Castle Rusty McClure.
As soon homf a girl acquires experience the sweetness begins to leave her right away. According to my observation the girls are wrong in looking for their permanent partners. Withoutabox Submit to Film Festivals. Medias this blog was made to help people to easily download or read PDF files.
See details and download book: Download Free El Pensamiento Chino Pdb By Marcel Granet. See details and download book: Get El Pensamiento Chino By Marcel Granet Fb2. See details and download book: Free Online Books El Pensamiento Chino Pdf By Marcel Granet.
Skip to main content. Log In Chnio Up. Chinese and English Translation by James Legge. Eco-Ontology and the Aesthetics of Existence. Southern Illinois University Press. The Later Works,vol. The experience of nature and forest in chinos. The Pioneer of the Modern Chinese Painting. Aesthetics of the Ordinary in World Spiritual of engagement is reaffirmed on different levels: University concepts of disinterestedness e different msrcel and to also confirm a of California Press.
Forests have traditionally been crucial to Finnish identity. In this time of eco-crises and increasing population densities, the significance of nature is an ever more important topic.
Even though it does not Creative Processes in Art: From the point described the work as follows: This a new project. It is called Forest Square. In this, I have chopped theme is reflected in chono field of contemporary art when Antti Laitinen down a 10×10 meter big piece of forest in Finland and sorted it all into different materials: The was one of the two artists to represent Finland in Venice Biennale The In choosing a Finnish artist of this scale, chosen to present the country piece of forest has exactly the same size as it had in the forest, in the Biennale, it obviously has to grane considered how his art somehow where it once was.
It is sort of a forest reorganized. These de- and re-constructed trees present also a very interesting Antti Laitinen b. In this work, a better general image of the exhibition as a totality. Laitinen has literally emptied the forest. He has marcle an empty space in the middle of a forest near his home-place in Somero by taking out all of the material, trees, moss and even the top layer of the soil covering the ground.
He has then dissected this material and organized it meticulously into a flat geometrical formation the size of which is the same as that chink the original forest square.
The artist then took photographs of these two squares to be shown in the exhibition. Creative Processes in Art: The conditions graney the actual making of when describing his way of presenting the raw material separated from his works are often very rough. Exposed to the weather conditions or the grahet. Laitinen dissects the forest in a meticulous, quasi-scientific other natural forces, Laitinen is willing to challenge himself physically way and places it on a flat surface before our eyes.
The flatness and rigor as well as mentally in the process. The forest is transformed from a living multi-dimensional ecosystem to Laitinen acknowledges that the process of making art itself a controlled and manageable still installation and what the exhibition- is the most important thing, even more so than the actual end result goers in Venice see, is a two-dimensional photograph that is an even or object that is being constructed.
A difficult question that one must however also ask here is that these qualities are left to the realm of imagination to create. The can artistic creation in relation to msrcel be anything else than invasive? At this left there as a residue of his artistic practice. In a sense, environmentally negative aesthetic by the artist himself in interviews as a typical strain in his artistic vision value is developed from a practice that contributes to the value of the becomes obvious.
It is not an open wound in such a grave sense as a gravel Laitinen is not considered an environmental artist in the most pit or an open nickel mine are, for example. In this Within the field of environmental aesthetics it has been indefinability he is thoroughly contemporary with his artistic choices. Understanding the environment this way is necessarily bound nature and to his material leave the spectator somewhat puzzled. The to our position in it. Even the language by which we talk about nature chosen mode of expression might give us a glimpse of the relation of the is saturated with our point of view as being part of it.
This statement artist and his material.
Free Online Books El Pensamiento Chino Pdf By Marcel Granet | It ebooks download sites!
It is the forest both in its entirety and all the the raw material, to be the mirror that reflects whatever the artist has way down to the level of the smallest pieces detached from the square. In its quasi-scientific approach, Forest Square is a kind of experiment on de-mystifying nature.
So many artists work shows cleverly that the essence of the forest is more than the sum today obviously feel obliged to explain and verbalize their motives of its ingredients. Instead his demeanour is more that of a tree feller or a forester. This understanding needs to stem from an experience He explains in chinno terms what he has done and how long it has taken that contains both sensory as well as cognitive elements; it seems to entail surrendering into a very fulfilling chini engaging interaction of some special nature.
❗ Download Free El Pensamiento Chino Pdb By Marcel Granet
Frame Visual Art Finland, p. Arnold Berleant has been publishing extensively on both Then there is also a third chnio, that of the exhibition. His work in however, of somewhat lesser impact in this case when presented is the the field of environmental aesthetics has been groundbreaking in taking documentation of the actual work of art. The work is thus distanced, out experience and relationship with nature into proper consideration.
Berleant first presented On the specific topic of different practices of forestry, Berleant his notion of engagement in in his Art and Engagement6.
von Andreas Moritz. Herausgeber: Excerpt from A. Moritz, „ The Amazing Liver and Gallbladder Flush “. Publisher: deacidify and cleanse the intestines. The liver and gallbladder cleanse I did is outlined in Andreas Moritz’s book, the “ Amazing Liver and Gallbladder Flush.” The more I researched. “Cleansing the liver of gallstones dramatically improves digestion, . I highly recommend Andreas Moritz’s book, “The Amazing Liver Cleanse”.
And if you bow out now, you would be missing out on an incredible opportunity to improve your overall health clexnse thus the quality of your life.
Detox program with the liver cleanse of Andreas Moritz or Hulda Clark – The Body Tuning Clinic
The book was published in and is an international bestseller. Moritz himself has 15 similar publications under his belt. I jumped the gun and bought the book. I later found a free version of it online. The information in the updated version of the flush the book release in is slightly different than that in the online version printed in I followed the online version and had great results. Often when we think of doing a detox, we imagine lightening up the diet, perhaps partaking in a juice cleanse or an exclusively raw foods diet that focuses on optimizing digestion.
Besides your heart, the liver is probably the hardest working organ in the body. It is responsible for processing toxins and assists the digestive system by producing bile to help the body metabolize fats. The liver also processes drugs and makes proteins that are important for blood clotting and other functions. Needless to say, the organ is on high alert at all gsllbladder, confronting the constant daily toxic load you throw on it. The liver and gallbladder are interconnected by way of the biliary tract.
The gallbladder stores bile produced by the liver and squeezes bile into the small intestines through tubes called ducts. This cleanse targets the liver and gallbladder alike by flushing gallstones that have formed as a result of substances in bile that have crystallized.
These stones form in the biliary tract that runs between the liver and gallbladder and thus are present in both organs.
While the liver and gallbladder are fascinating and efficient organs, they can become overwhelmed by the wear and tear of modern life. A regular flush can help keep your liver and gallbladder performing at their best.
Orange county juice cleanse
To prepare for the liver and gallbladder flush, assemble the following ingredients and purchase an enema bag or book two appointments for a colonic, cleahse on day six and one on day eight. The first enema or colonic is done on day six, right before the finale of the flush, and clears the digestive tract to make the elimination of gallstones easier. The second enema or colonic is done on day eight, the day after the cleanse is over, to help rinse out any gallstones stuck in the colon.
I found the flush incredibly easy to do. I get very moody and discouraged if I have to skip a meal, especially dinner, so it was tough for me to get through the cleansd. However, considering it was only for one night and would be over so soon, I was able to stick to my guns.
They were eliminated in frequent bouts throughout the morning on the seventh day, but by the early afternoon I felt back to normal. It ended up being a surprisingly easy and straightforward way to get real results for myself and I plan on doing it again next month. This article is not medical advice.
Be sure to consult with your primary care physician before undertaking any type of cleanse or detox.
Por d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s of application involving f i n e mechanics, see D I N Sheet 1 Section 4, Table I column 1 s p e c i f i e s a range. DIN Spur Gear Drives for Fine Mechanics; Tables. DIN Spur Gear Drives for Fine Mechanics; Indication in Drawings, Examples for Calculation.
DIN tol f cylindr Gear f i t s not l i s t e d i n this Table should be specified only i n exceptional circumstances. Recommendation f o r t h i s purpose i a given in column 4 t o 20 i n Table 1.
They a r e intended t o serve t h e designer as a check l i dkn t of a l l the points which must be taken i n t o sin when choosing a gear f i t.
I n t h e case of housings made of aluminium a l l o y s and s i m i l a r materials, s u i t a b l e measues should be taken, e. I f one of these requirements i s over-stepped the new conditions which r e s u l t regarding clearances, accuracy of transmission, tooth engagement conditions, etc.
If p l a i n b e a r i n g s are uaed, t h e i r dimensional and geometrical accuracy should be i n line with t h e correaponding i i w s for b a l l boaringo according t o D I N If the shaft and gear are made in one piece, the radial eccentricity between the mounting In the milling machine 0.
The values specified relate to the bearing when inetalled. In the came of instrument drives it is recommended, particularly when mounted overhung, that ball bearings with increased radial clearance ehould be used and proloading applied.
Page 4 DIN Sheet 2 2. Gear blank f dim r gear with external t eet h Bearing seating diameter Centre hole Figure The q u a 58045 i t y of a tooth system depends very l ar gel y on the accuracy of the gear blanks. This i s why permissible v a ri a t i o n dni a r e specified for the gear blank i n accordance w i t h the required qua l i t y of the tooth system.
In t h i s connection i t should be noted i n p a r t i c u l a r t h a ti n the case of disc-shaped gear blanks i n which t h e length of bore i a not s u f f i c i e n t t o support the gear blank during the gear-cutting procese, the end faces serve ae contact faces dinn the gear-cutting process and hence t h e i r geometrical and position var i at i ons determine t he qual i t y of th e tooth system. For denomination of djn f aces and of the relevant qual i t y i ndi cessee Figure 1 and 2 ; f o r marking the d i f f e r e n t ear blank shapes, see reference regarding Sup, plementary Sheet 2 i n DIN Sheet I page G e a r b l a n k s f o r t o p p e d s p u djn s e a r a Since i n t h i s case the t i p cylinder is djn by the gear-cutting t o o lthe t i p cylinder of the gear blank i s given a machining allowance which may differ according t o t h e gear-cutting method used.
I the tip circle tip cylinder is used for setting up the gear blank on the gear-cutting f machine, the radial eccentricity of the gear blauk according to Table 4 should be observed. I test flanges a r e provi0ed f o r setting up purposes, the permissible radial eccentricity f applies t o these. In this case the permissible radial eccentricity for the tip circle should be taken from Table 3. For grades P 8 it is recommended that the tip cylinder should be used for setting up the gear blank, or that test flanges should be provided.
The reference axis f o r the radial eccentricity is the axis of the mounting bore see Figure 5805 or the axis of the gear seating diameter see Figure 2 or the axis of the two centre holes see Figure 3. Permissible radial eccentricits for tip cylinder when this is n o t used for settinn UE Table 4 Permissible radial eccentricity f o r. For the end faces of a gear blank which are used as contact face o r clamping face the permissible axial dun Tea is specified in Table 5.
The reference diameter to which the axial eccentricity is related is found as: In this case the permissible axial eccentricity TAa is: When gears f o r which the gear blanks are disc-shaped are to be cut in batches, then, instead of a pemissible axial eccentricity for the face farthest from 58045 contact face, a permissible degree of non-parallelism should 85405 specified see Figure?
The difference between the upper and the lower allowance of the tip circle ia appended as a minus tolerance. This dimension must not be entered in the drawing redundant dimensioning; see DIN Sheet 3.
Dij acceptance for tooth Systeme mainly consists of a cumulative e r r o r testing r o l l testing. The cumulative error of a tooth system is the common and simultaneous effect of a number of individual errors on the ideal position and geometry of the tooth flanks.
The cumulative error can be found by rolling the gear to be tested with a master gear, f o r which purpose the total composite error of the master gear must be known and, where necessary, deducted from the teet result. The following are distinguished: Since the 5840 flank roll testing is generally carried out as a final inspection, and since it cannot be performed until the teeth have been finished, base tangent length and dual cone width allowances have been specified during manufacture measurement of tooth thickness.
These allowances, together with the centre distance allowances, are the criteria for a gear fit. The ideal involute surface corresponding to the nominal dimension and shown in Figure 4 is outside the boundary involutes because of the negative base tangent length allowances see a l s o DIN Sheet IFigure I. Base tangent length allowances and t h diin i r boundary involutes The base tangent length allowances a r e r e l a t e d t o the tooth thickness allowances as dinn This i s performed a s follows: Assuming t h a t t h e gear t o be t e s t e d i s within the scope according t o D I N Sheet 1, Sect i o n 2, the centre distance of s t r a i g djn t or h e l i c a l spur gears without addendum modification i s set on the dual flank r o l l t e s t e r a s folows: I n t h e equations gear 2 is t h e master gear.
Por h e l i c dun l spur gears dun i s replaced by cosaos and cosab by cosab. The centre distance a” can be s e t by placing dib appropriate s l i p gauges between t he two mounting a rb rin rs or the individual 58045. The c e n tre distance a” i s then reduced each time by the upper and louer allowance of the base tangent length converted t o the r a d i a l direction.
For s t r a i g h t or h e l i c a l spur gears without addendum don assuming that the gear t othe r e s u l t i n g dual be t e s t e d i a within t h e scope according t o DIB Sheet I Section 2 f l a n k r o l l t e s t distance allowances a r e as follows: For gears with V t e e t h t h e following apply: If the c h a r t feed i s operated and a t ra c e drawn corresponding t o t he upper and lower allowance, two concentric c i r c l e s a r 558405 obtained if the recording i a made in pol ar Co-ordinates see Figure 5 and two p a r a l l e l s t r 5840 i g h t lines i f the recording i dib made i n rectangular Co-ordinates see Figure 6.
The s l i p gauges a re then removed, t h e two gears ar e mounted on the arbors, brought i n t o cont a c t and r o l l e d one on the other.
The e r r o r t r a c e must remain between the two l i n e s previously drawn which represent the bounda r i e s of t h e tolerance zone. The t o t a l composite error according t o Section 4. Che allowances a r e the same a s the base tangent length allowances divided by the sine of the pressure angle.
The uncertainty i n measurement due t o var i at i on of the measuring Observance of t h e s p e c i fi e d allowances may be determined d i r e c te.
Like the base tangent length allowances, compliance with the dual cone width allowances can a l s o be determined by t h e dual flank r o l l t e s t i n The procedure i s the same as t h a t described under Section 4.
Aw irI 2 lana, 50 lover allovanc. I f the upper and lower allowances of the dual f lank r o l l t e s t distance have been recorded according t o Section 4.
Minor var iat i o n s may, however, a r i s e in this connection because the individual allowances have been rounded t o preferred numbers. FP With c i r c u l a r e r r o r t r a c e s see Figure 5 the upper dlovance of dual flank roll teat distance – – Figure 5.
DIN – European Standards
The face alignment error is designated as pos i t i ve if t he var i at i on i s i n the right-hand dir e c t i o nand negative i f i t i a i n the left-hand di r ect i on with reference t o the design value n of the h e l i x angle Bo.
Tolerances and allowances for housing AB understood in this Standard, t h e t e m housing r e f e r e t o the component connecting the bearings of a p a i r of mating gears.
For any given bearing a l l the s t at i onar y par t e belong t o the housing and a l l the p a r t s r o t a t i n g with the gear belong t o the shaft f o r permissible variat i o n of the “shaft” see Table I columu I O.
In connection v i t h the s e l e c t i o n of b a l l b e d n g e i t should be noted t h a t the tolerance allowed f o r t he bearing bores Q i n t h e housing r e l a t i v e t o the tolerance on t he centre distance Ta must be reduced by the amount of the r a d i a l run-out of the b a l l bearing outer ringe frL.
The c e n t re distance allowances apply t o housings with gears according t o Dl3 Sheet 1, Section 2. They should be taken from the Tables i n Section 6 t o s u i t the gear f i t selected grade and tolerance zone. The following 2 measuring planes a re distinguished: The e r r o r i n a x i a l parallelism i e designated by Spa. Measuring plane parallel witEa centre distance line Figure 8 E r r o r in axial parallelism f p s.
Measuring plane perpendicular with centre distance line 6 Tolerances f o r uear assemblies. The tolerances and allowances etated’in the following Tables apply to gears according to D M Sheet 1, Section 2.
For gears not covered i n the scope it may be necessary i certain circumstances to modify the n allowances and tolerances. Base tanuent lenRth allowancea; dual cone width allowances; Dem. I ma -4 -ea -n -w – above 6 to I2 hove 0.
Base tannent lennth allowances; dual cone width allowances; perm. Base tanuent lenuth allowances; dual cone width allowances; Dem.
Base tannent lenRth allowances; dual cone width allowances; Derm.
Guazuma crinita is a semideciduous tree with a narrow, elongate or pyramidal crown; it can grow 7 – 18 metres tall in Brazil, but can exceed 30 metres in Bolivia . PDF | Guazuma crinita (Mart.) is an important timber-tree species for agroforestry plantations in the Peruvian Amazon Basin. Trees are typically. Peruvian smallholder production and marketing of bolaina (Guazuma crinita), a fast-growing Amazonian timber species: Call for a.
Guazuma crinita is an important fast-growing timber tree species widely used in agroforestry systems in the Peruvian Amazon. The objectives of our research were i to assess genetic diversity of G. The sample included 44 genotypes from 11 provenances in the Aguaytia and neighboring Pachitea watersheds in the Peruvian Amazon.
Ten ISSR primers amplified a total of 65 bands of which 61 were polymorphic The cginita of DNA amplification varied from to 2, bp. Among the provenances, Macuya exhibited the highest percentage of polymorphic bands PPB with Overall genetic differentiation G jt was 0. Gene flow Nm was Cluster analysis was not related to geographic origin, suggesting a common gene pool.
This is the first study of genetic diversity and structure of G. We recommend in situ conservation strategies for populations with high levels of genetic diversity.
A domestication program for tropical tree species started in the mids in the Peruvian Amazon, and identified Guazuma crinita Mart.
Sterculiaceae family as one of the priority timber species for agroforestry systems So-telo-Montes and Weber This pioneer species can be inter-cultivated with food crops because it has a small crown with thin branches, and the older branches naturally self-prune in the lower crown.
It provides wood products at an early age yearscan be coppiced for successive harvests and contributes significantly to farmers’ income Labarta and Weber Due to its fast initial height growth up to 3 m per year it has also been promoted in reforestation programs and agroforestry systems IIAP The mating system of G. Trees can begin flowering after years and produce millions of seeds that are dispersed by both wind and water at the beginning of the rainy season Rochon et al.
The species can potentially produce a dense stand of natural regeneration in open patches Rochon et al. Its importance has prompted research to identify the best provenances and improve the management of the species.
Guazuma crinita – Useful Tropical Plants
In general, very little research on intra-specific genetic variation in agroforestry tree species crinits the tropics has been reported Weber and Sotelo-Montes Genetic variability is essential to the success of strategies for tree improvement including selection, sustainable management and genetic resource conservation O’Neill et al. Morphological characters and commercial wood traits have been used traditionally to characterize levels and patterns of diversity; however these traits alone represent only a small portion of the plant genome and are also gkazuma by environmental factors Muchugi et al.
The use of genetic guuazuma based on DNA overcome these disadvantages and are able to measure the genetic diversity in plant species White et al.
Inter Simple Sequence Repeat ISSR markers combine some advantages of other markers such as reproducibility, low costs and no need to develop species-specific primers for analysis. ISSRs are an efficient tool to analyze the variability and genetic structure in natural, managed and cultivated tree stands, and are useful to identify genotypes, even among highly related individuals Thangjam Ccrinita objectives of this research are i to assess genetic diversity of G.
We hypothesized that there is a high level of polymorphism within provenances, very little differentiation among provenances and a positive relationship between genetic distance and geographic distance among provenances.
Sample origin and plant material. We analyzed 44 genotypes of G. They were identified and selected based on phenotypic measurements along ten years of evaluation. Young leaf tissue samples of each genotype were individually collected and stored in micro-test tubes with silica gel for further DNA isolation.
Guazuma crinita Images
Map of collection areas of 11 provenances that were sampled in the study. Puerto Inca and PMA: DNA quality was determined by vuazuma. Among the 30 universal UBC-ISSR primers University of British Columbia, Canada tested for their ability to produce distinct, reproducible and well-resolved fragments in the 44 individual genotypes, 10 primers were selected for the amplification of all the samples table 2.
Primers used in the ISSR analysis and summary of amplifications. The cycling conditions were as follows: PCR amplification of crinitz samples with each primer was carried out in duplicate so as to ensure the consistency and reproducibility of the results.
ISSR fragments were scored as presence 1 or absence 0 of bands in the gel profile. Only strong bands were used to construct a binary matrix. A dendrogram was constructed by unweighted neighbor joining based on Jaccard’s dissimilarity index. Mantel test in Gen Al Ex V6 Peakall and Smouse was performed using Nei’s unbiased genetic distances matrix and the matrix of geographic distances to determine whether the geographical and genetic distances between provenances were correlated.
The DNA amplified using ISSR markers generated a total number of 65 fragments by the ten primers; the amplified fragments were within a range of to 2, bp. A total of 61 fragments were polymorphic The average numbers of loci and polymorphic loci generated per primer were 6. The overall analyses of genetic variation at watershed and provenance level are shown in table 3.
The percentage of polymorphic bands was higher in Aguaytia watershed, while Nei’s gene diversity He and Shannon index I were higher in the Pachitea watershed. Tournavista-road also had the lowest Nei’s gene diversity He and Shannon index I. Overall coefficient of genetic differentiation G st was 0.
Gene flow Nm was estimated to be An analysis of Nei’s genetic identities of the pair-wise comparison between provenances varied from 0.
Center for International Forestry Research
Genetic distances among provenances ranged from 0. The lowest genetic distance was between Nueva Requena ANR and Curimana river ACR provenances which are both located along the Curimana river figure 1suggesting that downstream dispersal of seeds reduces the genetic distance.
Guaxuma, the genetic distance was relatively low between most provenances in the Aguaytia watershed and Macuya, which is in the Pachitea watershed figure 1. It may reflect the exchange of genes by the influence of human activity along closer watersheds. Nei’s genetic distance and geographic distance among the provenances of G. Geographic distance in kilometers above diagonal and Nei’s genetic distance below diagonal. See table 1 for provenance abbreviations. In order to assess relationships among provenances, a cluster analysis was used to generate a dendrogram based on Jaccard’s dissimilarity among the 44 genotypes figure 2.
The dendrogram showed that the genotypes were grouped into three distinct clusters. Topology of the dendrogram showed that clusters were not related to the geographic origins of the genotypes. Dendrogram of 44 Guazuma crinita genotypes based on Jaccard’s dissimilarity index.
This suggests that geographic distance had a small effect on genetic differentiation among provenances. Tree domestication has evolved over the last two decades to become an important global program, and molecular techniques have been used to analyze genetic diversity in several agroforestry tree species Leakey et al.
A number of authors have examined both natural stands of tropical trees and cultivated samples e. Results from the provenance test indicated that the provenance from the local watershed Aguaytia performed better in terms of growth than did provenances from other watersheds in the Peruvian Amazon Basin Weber and Sotelo-Montes Wood density also varied genetically among provenances Weber and Sotelo-Montes In this study of 44 genotypes from 11 provenances of G.
Although we were aware that our sample size was not extensive limitation caused by small number of individual trees in the clonal orchardother researchers have investigated genetic diversity in tree species using even smaller sample sizes e.
Our study revealed For example, Russell et al. However He of G. The high value for gene flow reflects both pollen dispersal and seed dispersal. Seeds can be dispersed over long distances by wind, and also downstream by water, hence we expected little differentiation among provenances.
This is similar to the case of C.
There was a weak positive relationship between geographic and genetic distances of the provenances. However, the cluster analysis did not reveal any clear geographical pattern guazhma the genotypes from the different provenances. Cluster groups, contained genotypes from several different provenances. These results probably reflect the high gene flow in the sample region or limitation of the ISSR markers to reveal the existing variation among provenances.
Results suggest that the provenances populations of G. The dynamic of gene flow via rivers within and among watersheds in the Peruvian Amazon Basin Jansky and forest fragmentation due to shifting cultivation could contribute to the formation of subpopulations Guazumma A report of genetic differentia tion of Swietenia macrophylla King.
Most diversity occurred within rather than among provenances. It seems that, there exists extensive gene flow, thus the provenances were not genetically isolated. There was no clear grouping of genotypes based on the genotypes’ provenance of origin or proximity to other provenances.
Nevertheless, huazuma was a weak positive correlation between genetic and geographic distance of the provenances. Our results confirm that even buazuma small clonal garden that was used in our research –under the conditions that the collection be correctly done– could possess relatively high genetic diversity and thus could form a good base for further domestication of the species.
In addition criniga ex situ clonal gardens, in situ conservation of populations of G. Since seeds are dispersed by rivers downstream, we might expect higher genetic diversity below the confluence of major rivers, consequently targeting conservation in these areas may be an effective conservation strategy.
This study indicates that ISSR markers are effective and a relatively easy way to detect polymorphism and characterization of genetic variation. However, we recommend analyzing more samples per population with employment of other types of molecular markers in future studies of genetic criniha as a basis of genetic improvement to G.
The authors thank Manuel Soudre for providing access to the clonal garden and information about the genotypes of G. The authors thank Joel Odicio for support with the molecular markers analyses. Tree origins and conservation on farm: A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of guazma tissue.
Documento de trabajo No. Genetic variation in Costa Rica populations of the tropical timber species Cedrela odorata L. Do farmers reduce genetic diversity when they domesticate tropical trees?
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